Relative dating relies on which of the following principles
Each original isotope, called the parent, gradually decays to form a new isotope, called the daughter.Each isotope is identified with what is called a ‘mass number’.For example, the decay of potassium-40 to argon-40 is used to date rocks older than 20,000 years, and the decay of uranium-238 to lead-206 is used for rocks older than 1 million years.Radiocarbon dating measures radioactive isotopes in once-living organic material instead of rock, using the decay of carbon-14 to nitrogen-14.These rates of decay are known, so if you can measure the proportion of parent and daughter isotopes in rocks now, you can calculate when the rocks were formed.
Geologist in the 1800s worked out 7 basic principles of stratigraphy that allowed them, and now us, to work out the relative ages of rocks.
Principle of Uniformitarianism The principle of Uniformitarianism was postulated by James Hutton (1726-1797) who examined rocks in Scotland and noted that features like mudcracks, ripple marks, graded bedding, etc.
where the same features that could be seen forming in modern environments.
Prior to the late 17th century, geologic time was thought to be the same as historical time.
Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh, Ireland, 1654, added up generations from the Old Testament and determined that Earth formed on October 23, 4004 BCE.