A generals insights into leadership and management reorganizing consolidating downsizing
Institutional theory focuses on the need for organizations to maintain legitimacy with societal norms and values, often embodied in governments, professions, and trade associations (Meyer and Rowan, 1977; Powell and Di Maggio, 1991; Scott, 1987, 1995; Zucker, 1977). They tend, however, to deemphasize the influences of management action and leadership in organizational change (but see Hannan and Freeman, 1984; Suchman, 1995).In this chapter, in contrast, we emphasize the role of managers as interpreters and even manipulators of their organization's environment.
We discuss the effects of increases in scientific knowledge, societal trends in professional roles, and changing technologies and demographic trends on organizations.
Although exponential growth cannot continue forever, this general pattern of rapid growth is likely to continue into the intermediate future.
One reason to expect continued growth in scientific knowledge is that increased capability and application of advanced communications technologies will greatly increase the availability of whatever knowledge is produced.
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